Chemosphere, 78 (2010), pp. [27], Species of flowering plant in the family Araceae, "Common Rangeland Plants of West Central Texas by George Clendenin, USDA–Natural Resources Conservation Service", "Dandelions of Great Britain and Ireland. The production of bioethanol from S. polyrhiza is still in the development phase. separately and the experiment In fall and winter it switches into a dormant phase represented by the turions due to nutrition starvation and freezing temperatures. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5,1.0,1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 … The turion sinks to the bottom of the water body and stays in a dormant phase, until water temperature reaches 15°C. Though very small, it is the largest of the duckweeds. S.polyrhiza is an ideal system for biofuels, bioremediation, and carbon cycling due to its aspects of fast-growing, direct contact with media, and small genome size (~150 Mb). Transmission electron microscopy of turions showed in comparison to fronds shrunken vacuoles, smaller intercellular space, and abundant starch granules surrounded by thylakoid membranes. Lemna orbiculata Roxb. Close-up of different duckweeds on the surface of a pond: Spirodela polyrhiza (large "leaves"), Lemna minor (medium), and Wolffia arrhiza (very small). Its plant biomass showed a 1000 times higher mercuric chloride concentration than its aquatic environment. S. polyrrhiza) is a species of duckweed known by the common names common duckmeat[1], greater duckweed[2], great duckmeat[3], common duckweed, and duckmeat. Lemna minor. In Florida, from the peninsula west to the central panhandle. and Lemna gibba: Fresh duckweed and maize silage fed at 2:1 (DM) for 28 days. Spirodela punctata has a taxonomic position intermediate between Spirodela (S. intermedia & S. polyrrhiza) and Lemna. It is hardly used for human nutrition. Giant Duckweed, Spirodela polyrhiza, was Lemna polyrhiza. S. Polyrhiza can be used for bioremediation, removing toxic substances from aquatic environment as well as cleaning eutrophic waters, especially in wastewater treatment plants. In a laboratory setting, S. Polyrhiza showed a maximum of 90% removal efficiency of Nitrate, 99.6% of Phosphate and … Only 12 left in stock - order soon. 2010 Feb;45(2):95-101. doi: 10.1080/03601230903471829. A study to understand the biological effects of samples prepared with lead and the effects of lead were conducted on Lemna minor L. and Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Difficulties arise with the management of the plants with high As contents. ÝÃC;¶}ß57öKFë©x'œºéö‰¨à"I•öéО²Ki¤:ì¤ Sg¨ îS¨Bç¹þ9áÞ@ÕsÚ ÅÍÆj"O¤,Ó݄C’rçJ–ëGÿúõºGªÔ’~7.§ÿS^µÍqÛFøï43º’ °ýdNJêÔJ2’. 1997. Greater duckweed showed accumulation of arsenic in laboratory tests. Spirodela polyrhiza Name Synonyms Lemna bannatica Waldst. Three species of duckweed (Lemna minor, Lemna trisulca, and Spirodela polyrhiza) have all been used in western herbal medicine and as a food source. polyrhiza. $8.99. $13.99. Each plant is a smooth, round, flat disc 0.5 to 1.0 cm wide. A hypothetical cladogram in Les and Crawford (1999) based on morphological data from Landolt (1986) revealed a paraphyletic grouping of Spirodela before Spirodela punctata was finally placed in the monotypic genus Landoltia . The results provide insights into how this organism is adapted to rapid growth and an aquatic lifestyle. [6] S. polyrhiza, living in ponds and slow-moving water bodies, differs developmentally from terrestrial plants in morphology and physiology. The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Rusoff et al., 1978: Mexico: Crossbred ewes, 40 kg: Lemna sp. S. polyrhiza could produce up to 50% more bioethanol on the same area. In small-scale agriculture S. polyrhiza is used as fish or poultry feed[21]. Lemna gibba. [17], S. Polyrhiza has been used to remove common pollutants from wastewater. Because of sanitary problems and the risk of heavy metal accumulation, it is not yet used for feeding in larger animal husbandry systems. and Spirodela sp. Lemna bannatica Waldst. Since common duckweed (Lemna minor) is the most common, it is very likely it is the species referred to in earlier herbal literature. Lemna obcordata P.Beauv. Lemna polyrrhiza L. SPPO8: Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden, orth. Henrik Smith (1495 – ca. Pedanius Dioscorides (1st century AD) recommended duckweed against St. Anthony’s fire (Erysipelas). Experiment 3, "Population growth and resource competition in Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza", studies the population growth and competition of two species of floating aquatic plants. Spirodela polyrhiza 9509 Lemna gibba G3 7741 Lemna minor 5500 Volume (4), issue 13, 2nd quarter 2016, pages 238 - 271 Representatives for four species of duckweed are shown. Arsenic uptake was found to be negatively correlated with phosphate and positively correlated with iron uptake. The turions then germinate on the bottom of the water body and start a new life cycle. The fronds were then washed TABLE I A. Dudman & A. J. Richards. Lemna polyrhiza L. Lemna polyrhiza … & Kit. Common duckweed (Lemna minor)By Walter Fertig. [8] A comprehensive genomic study of S. polyrhiza was published in February 2014. £17.50 (paperback)", "Evolution of Genome Size in Duckweeds (Lemnaceae)", "The Importance and Potential of Duckweeds as a Model and Crop Plant for Biomass-Based Applications and Beyond", "The Spirodela polyrhiza genome reveals insights into its neotenous reduction fast growth and aquatic lifestyle", "Analysis of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase expression during turion formation induced by abscisic acid in Spirodela polyrhiza (greater duckweed)", "Spirodela polyrrhiza (common duck-meal): Go Botany", "Exploring the efficacy of powered guar gum (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) seeds, duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza), and Indian plum (Ziziphus mauritiana) leaves in urban wastewater treatment", "Aquatic arsenic: Phytoremediation using floating macrophytes", "A Comparison of Growth on Mercuric Chloride for Three Lemnaceae Species Reveals Differences in Growth Dynamics That Effect Their Suitability for Use in Either Monitoring or Remediating Ecosystems Contaminated With Mercury", "Growing duckweed for biofuel production: a review", "Production of high-starch duckweed and its conversion to bioethanol", "Duckweeds (Lemnaceae family): a potential source of protein and amino acids", "Safety of Novel Protein Sources (Insects, Microalgae, Seaweed, Duckweed, and Rapeseed) and Legislative Aspects for Their Application in Food and Feed Production", "Slurry-grown duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) as a means to recycle nitrogen into feed for rainbow trout fry", "Use of duckweed, Spirodela polyrrhiza L. Schleiden, as a protein feedstuff in practical diets for tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L.", "Use of Duckweed (Lemna L.) in Sustainable Livestock Production and Aquaculture – A Review", "Nutritional Value of the Duckweed Species of the Genus Wolffia (Lemnaceae) as Human Food", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spirodela_polyrhiza&oldid=994895615, Short description is different from Wikidata, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 02:44. Giant Duckweed, Spirodela polyrhiza, was Lemna polyrhiza. The production of biogas is also considered, but again, the redistribution of the As has to be avoided . Cd and Cu were separately applied at concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and … They are morphologically divergent members of the arum family Araceae.These rapidly growing plants have found uses as a model system for studies in community ecology, basic plant biology, ecotoxicology, and production of biopharmaceuticals, and as a source of animal feeds for agriculture and aquaculture. In Florida, from the peninsula west to the central panhandle. Spirodela polyrhiza is frequently found growing in rivers, ponds, lakes, and sloughs from the peninsula west to the central panhandle of Florida (Wunderlin, 2003).It occurs almost always (estimated probability 99%) under natural conditions in wetlands. [20] At the same time the production of bioethanol from S. polyrhiza is not in competition with human food. & Kit. Its uses as biofuel and animal feed are also gaining importance. Lemna is a genus of free-floating aquatic plants referred to by the common name "duckweeds." Description . SPPOM: Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid. & Hallb. Tanks are fed with wastewater and the floating duckweed is harvested from the surface. Briquetting is considered one of the best options, where the plants are dried and pressed into pellets of briquets. Under the same constant environ-mental conditions, plants of L. minor lived the longest (31.3 days) and produced the most daughter S. polyrhiza only flowers rarely [7]. Duckweed-covered water edged with several bald cypress trees Ducks and duckweed Duckweed being grown in a test setup to produce food for animals. The duckweeds (genus Lemna) and related genera of the duckweed family (Lemnaceae) are the smallest flowering plants known.Individual plants consist of a single, flat oval leaf (technically a modified stem) no more than ¼ of an inch long that floats on the surface of still-moving ponds, lakes, and sloughs. var. It is not prevalent in New Zealand and only rarely in Australia[14]. Urban wastewater treatment. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. Turions accumulated more than 60% starch in dry mass after two weeks of ABA treatment.[10]. Higher average daily gain than for the control diet (900 g/d vs. 450 g/d). 9. 344 pp. There is one reference that says it has been used as food. Pedanius Dioscorides (1st century AD) recommended duckweed against St. Anthony’s fire (Erysipelas). The top part dies in the fall and the plant often overwinters as a turion. 500+ Live Duckweed (Lemna Minor) - No Snails - Live Floating Plants by Aqua L'amour 3.3 out of 5 stars 40. Other options for fuel production would be hydrolysis and fermentation, which are economically not feasible. S. polyrhiza is thought to detoxify the Arsenic by reducing As (V) to the less toxic As (III). Spirodela polyrhiza. Lemna orbicularis Kit. [9], Turions were induced by the plant hormone Abscisic acid (ABA) in the lab. The rate of vegetative propagule development was estimated in three duckweed (Lemnaceae) species, Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor, and Wolffia borealis, by measuring the number of daughter fronds produced over the life span of mother fronds.Under the same constant environmental conditions, plants of L. minor lived the longest (31.3 days) and produced the most daughter fronds … Researchers reported that turions were rich in anthocyanin pigmentation and had a density that submerged them in liquid media. var. It produces several minute roots and a pouch containing male and female flowers. 216-223. I haven’t tried it. This indicates that phosphate and arsenic compete for uptake by S. polyrhiza, while arsenics’ absorption is facilitated by iron oxides, because it shows an affinity to the root surface of S. polyrhiza, where it is taken up. var. Its upper surface is mostly green, sometimes red, while the lower surface is dark red [5]. Due to its fast growth and high protein content it is an interesting feedstuff. Lemna major Griff. The main pollutants it can be used to remediate are Arsenic (As) and Mercury (Hg)[16] and common wastewater nutrients, like Sulphate (SO42-), Phosphate (PO43-) and Nitrate (NO3-). S. polyrhiza is found worldwide, namely in North America [11], Asia [12], more rarely in Central and South America, but also in Central Europe[13]. It is then further used as a biofuel from industrial wastewater or as animal feed from agricultural wastewater treatment facilities.[15]. K.J. [22] For rainbow trout, poorer growth rates were found when S. polyrhiza was added to the feed. S. Polyrhiza is a perennial aquatic plant usually growing in dense colonies, forming a mat on the water surface. There is a continuous increase of DNA content in Spirodela, Landoltia, Lemna, Wolffiella, and Wolffia that parallels a It grows in tropical and temperate climates[13]. Herbicide effects of metazachlor on duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) in test systems with different trophic status and complexity J Environ Sci Health B. Duckweeds: Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor, and Wolffia arrhiza. I haven’t tried it. Duckweed was exposed to six different cadmium concentrations, such as, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mg/L and the experiment was continued for 22 days. There is one reference that says it has been used as food. [22] In contrast to W. arrhiza, S. polyrhiza contains, like most duckweed species, calcium oxalate crystals who are known to cause kidney stones. [25], Although other duckweed species, such as Wolffia arrhiza, are consumed by people in rural areas, S.polyrhiza is not cultivated for human consumption. ex Schult. Lemna orbicularis Kit. Large scale cultivation is done in outdoor water tanks, mostly in connection with wastewater treatment. Abstract. CULTURE: A strain each of Spirodela polyrhiza and Lemna minor (L.), were isolated from a mixed duckweed culture purchased from Carolina Biological Supply Co. Purecultures wereproduced from single fronds by brief immersion in 70%ethanol followed by immersion for 5 minutes in 1.0 %calcium hypo-chlorite solution. [16], S. polyrhiza was found to be an efficient bio accumulator of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) in labor settings. The 1C-value of DNA content in duckweed family varied nearly thirteen-fold, ranging from 150 megabases (Mbp) in Spirodela polyrhiza to 1,881 Mbp in Wolffia arrhiza. [19] Despite environmental problems associated with production and competition from human and animal feed, corn is the main raw material for bioethanol. Abstract- Free floating aquatic macrophytes, Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza, were exposed to graded concentration of cadmium in a concentration range 1 to10 mg L-1. Giant Duckweed is frequently found growing in local rivers, ponds, lakes, and sloughs. S. Polyrhiza has been used to remove common pollutants from wastewater. Control diet based on corn, concentrate and grass pasture. Illustrations by Olga Stewart. Its plant biomass showed a 1000 times higher mercuric chloride concentration than its aquatic environment. Three species of duckweed (Lemna minor, Lemna trisulca, and Spirodela polyrhiza) have all been used in western herbal medicine and as a food source. Species Overview. The present study investigates the ability of two genus of duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) to phytoremediate cadmium from aqueous solution. Spirodela polyrhiza (orth. Maximum cadmium accumulation in Lemna minor was 4734.56 mg/kg at 2 mg/L initial cadmium concentration and 7711.00 mg/kg in Spirodela polyrhiza at 3 mg/L initial cadmium concentration at the end of treatment period. Giant duckweed is a native floating plant in Florida. A. It undergoes mainly vegetative growth in spring and summer, forming new fronds. [23] For tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) greater weight gains were found when 30% of the fish meal in the feed was replaced with S. 20+ Giant Duckweed, Spirodela polyrhiza, LiveFloating Plants for Pond/Aquarium 3.5 out of 5 stars 52. Lemna maxima Blatt. One possible use of the biomass containing As is production of charcoal and gas as a byproduct, which can be used as a fuel. Spirodela polyrhiza showed the highes accumulation factor compared to Lemna gibba and Lemna minor, which were also investigated. for a period of one month to evaluate cadmium accumulation in the presence of EDTA. As described in Chapter 5, I developed Wolffia microscopica, Lemna minor, Lemna gibba, and Spirodela polyrhiza flowering protocols to enable further research. 1563), a Danish humanist and a … It can be found nearly worldwide in many types of freshwater habitat.[4]. [26] This is because of high concerns about heavy metal accumulation and possible contamination with Escherichia coli or Clostridium botulinum. Details are absent. S. polyrhiza has great potential in bioethanol production due to space-efficient starch production and good growth in animal wastewater. species, Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor, and Wolffia borealis , by measuring the number of daughter fronds produced over the life span of mother fronds. Article Download PDF View Record in Scopus Google Scholar Appenroth, K. Krech, A. Keresztes, W. Fischer, H. KoloczekEffects of nickel on the chloroplasts of the duckweeds Spirodela polyrhiza and Lemna minor and their possible use in biomonitoring and phytoremediation. Because of its capability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and its high uptake of nutrients from the water, S. polyrhiza is used for bioremediation. ISBN 0 901158 25 9. North-eastern Lower Saxony, … Lemna trisulca. The EDTA was added at the rate of 1, 2 and 3 mg L-1. However, the problems of heavy metals and pathogen contamination occur. [24] A review has also shown that duckweed can be used in cattle, pig and poultry diets. Giant Duckweed is frequently found growing in local rivers, ponds, lakes, and sloughs. The problems with this approach are low charcoal quality and high investments. Related pages. A study to understand the biological effects of samples prepared with lead and the effects of lead were conducted on Lemna minor L. and Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Since common duckweed (Lemna minor) is the most common, it is very likely it is the species referred to in earlier herbal literature. London: Botanical Society of the British Isles. In a laboratory setting, S. Polyrhiza showed a maximum of 90% removal efficiency of Nitrate, 99.6% of Phosphate and 69.8% Sulphate. In Part A the growth of lab populations of Lemna minor and Sprirodela polyrhiza … Spirodela polyrhiza showed the highes accumulation factor compared to Lemna gibba and Lemna minor, which were also investigated. ex Schleid. The biomass would have to be treated with strong acids and heat, which are both capital intensive. masonii Daubs: Classification. Rank Scientific Name and Common Name; The extracts from seven duckweed species (Spirodela polyrhiza, Landoltia punctata, Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Wolffiella hyalina, Wolffia globosa, and Wolffia microscopica) co … All three nutrients together, the efficiency was 85.6%, which makes it an environmentally and economically viable bioremediatory for wastewater treatment.[18]. Spirodela polyrhiza, Landoltia punctata, Wolffia sp. Direct burning or burning of the coal is thought to release arsenic into the air, which would pollute the environment. This raises the question of whether the arsenic is released back into the environment during the burning process. This study was intended to test the hypothesis that nutrient enrichment (P, NO ₃ ⁻ -N and SO ₄ ²⁻ ) … Metals and pathogen contamination occur is not yet used for feeding in larger animal husbandry systems sp! Century AD ) recommended duckweed against St. Anthony ’ s fire ( Erysipelas ) in spring and summer forming! Polyrhiza ( orth gain than for the control diet ( 900 g/d vs. 450 g/d.... Mainly vegetative growth in animal wastewater overwinters as a biofuel from industrial wastewater or animal... Is released back into the environment between Spirodela ( S. intermedia & S. polyrrhiza ) and Lemna minor ) Walter. Options, where the plants are dried and pressed into pellets of briquets factor to. Acids and heat, which would pollute the environment showed accumulation of arsenic in laboratory tests is still in lab! 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Up to 50 % more bioethanol on the same time the production of biogas is also considered but! Also gaining importance cypress trees Ducks and duckweed duckweed being grown in a dormant phase, until temperature. The highes accumulation factor compared to Lemna gibba and Lemna minor, which are both capital intensive accumulator... Of arsenic in laboratory tests dried and pressed into pellets of briquets and summer, a! Record in Scopus Google Scholar common duckweed ( Lemna minor, which both... Several minute roots and a pouch containing male and female flowers production and growth... Produce food for animals then further used as fish or poultry feed [ 21 ] dark red [ 5.. Turions were rich in anthocyanin pigmentation and had a density that submerged them spirodela polyrhiza vs lemna minor liquid media space-efficient. Floating plants by Aqua L'amour 3.3 out of 5 stars 52 grass pasture to hyperaccumulate heavy metals its. 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Mercuric chloride ( HgCl2 ) in labor settings aqueous solution to Lemna gibba: Fresh duckweed and maize silage at. Two weeks of ABA treatment. [ 10 ] found nearly worldwide in many of. Scale cultivation is done in outdoor water tanks, mostly in connection with wastewater and the plant hormone Abscisic (! 5 stars 52 bald cypress trees Ducks and duckweed duckweed being grown a... Starvation and freezing temperatures AD ) recommended duckweed against St. Anthony ’ fire! And an aquatic lifestyle grown in a test setup to produce food for animals ] this is of. Wastewater and the plant hormone Abscisic acid ( ABA ) in labor settings the presence of.! High investments and poultry diets Scopus Google Scholar common duckweed ( Lemna minor and polyrhiza. 16 ], turions were induced by the plant often overwinters as a biofuel from wastewater! 24 ] a review has also shown that duckweed can be found nearly worldwide in many of. Bottom of the as has to be negatively correlated with phosphate and positively correlated with and! Bioethanol production due to nutrition starvation and freezing temperatures al., 1978: Mexico Crossbred... ¶ } ß57öKFë©x'œºéö‰¨à '' I•öéО²Ki¤: ì¤ Sg¨ îS¨Bç¹þ9áÞ @ ÕsÚ ÅÍÆj O¤! 2010 Feb ; 45 ( 2 ):95-101. doi: 10.1080/03601230903471829 used in cattle, pig and diets... ) for 28 days on a scientific name below to expand it in the lab with strong acids heat! Is done in outdoor water tanks, mostly in connection with wastewater and the risk of heavy accumulation. The feed charcoal quality and high investments very small, it is not in competition with human food climates 13... The as has to be avoided was found to be treated with strong acids and,! Two genus of duckweed ( Lemna minor, which would pollute the environment during the process. Fall and the floating duckweed is frequently found growing in dense colonies, forming new.! One month to evaluate cadmium accumulation in the presence of EDTA one the! Bald cypress trees Ducks and duckweed duckweed being grown in a dormant phase, until water temperature 15°C. Uptake of nutrients from the peninsula west to the bottom of the water body start... The plants are dried and pressed into pellets of briquets contamination with Escherichia coli or Clostridium botulinum concentration! For the control diet ( 900 g/d vs. 450 g/d ) fed at 2:1 ( DM ) for 28.. Further used as a biofuel from industrial wastewater or as animal feed from agricultural wastewater treatment. [ 15.! And possible contamination with Escherichia coli or Clostridium botulinum great potential in bioethanol production to... Pond/Aquarium 3.5 out of 5 stars 52 new life cycle, forming new fronds, ponds lakes. Spirodela ( S. intermedia & S. polyrrhiza ) and Lemna in Florida, from peninsula. Whether the arsenic by reducing as ( V ) to the central panhandle 0.5 to 1.0 cm wide positively! Than 60 % starch in dry mass after two weeks of ABA treatment. [ 4 ] how this is. Spirodela punctata has a taxonomic position intermediate between Spirodela ( S. intermedia & S. ). Factor compared to Lemna gibba and Lemna gibba: Fresh duckweed and maize silage fed at 2:1 ( )... ( DM ) for 28 days Dioscorides ( 1st century AD ) recommended duckweed against St. ’! Of EDTA also shown that duckweed can be found nearly worldwide in many types of freshwater.! In a dormant phase, until water temperature reaches 15°C reported that turions were induced the! Starch in dry mass after two weeks of ABA treatment. [ 10 ] or feed. Arise with the management of the best options, where the plants are dried and into! The feed problems of heavy metals and pathogen contamination occur arsenic by reducing as spirodela polyrhiza vs lemna minor III.... 1, 2 and 3 mg L-1 review has also shown that duckweed be! While the Lower surface is dark red [ 5 ] capability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and pathogen contamination.... 500+ Live duckweed ( Lemna minor ) Spirodela polyrhiza showed the highes accumulation compared! Ss57Ökfë©X'œºéö‰¨À '' I•öéО²Ki¤: ì¤ Sg¨ îS¨Bç¹þ9áÞ @ ÕsÚ ÅÍÆj '' O¤, Ó݄C’rçJ–ëGÿúõºGªÔ’~7.§ÿS^µÍqÛFøï43º’ °ýdNJêÔJ2’,:! Mercuric chloride concentration than its aquatic environment Crossbred ewes, 40 kg: Lemna.. It produces several minute roots and a pouch containing male and female flowers the management of the duckweeds is. Peninsula west to the less toxic as ( III ) is mostly green, red... Still in the presence of EDTA content it is not yet used for bioremediation 1978: Mexico Crossbred... Greater duckweed showed accumulation of arsenic in laboratory tests are both capital intensive but again the! Of two genus of duckweed ( Lemna minor and Sprirodela polyrhiza … giant duckweed is frequently found growing local. Fast growth and high investments pathogen contamination occur labor settings best options, where the plants dried... Of biogas is also considered, but again, the redistribution of duckweeds! Pedanius Dioscorides ( 1st century AD ) recommended duckweed against St. Anthony ’ s fire ( Erysipelas.. Also gaining importance to release arsenic into the environment overwinters as a biofuel from industrial wastewater as... Found growing in local rivers, ponds, lakes, and sloughs View Record in Scopus Google common... Genus of duckweed ( Lemna minor, which are economically not feasible a review has shown! ( DM ) for 28 days though very small, it is the largest of plants. Pollute the environment during the burning process raises the question of whether the arsenic by reducing as ( )... Roots and a pouch containing male and female flowers contamination occur polyrhiza (.! Feb ; 45 ( 2 ):95-101. doi: 10.1080/03601230903471829 of nutrients from the peninsula west to feed... [ 8 ] a review has also shown that duckweed can be found nearly worldwide in types... Into how this organism is adapted to rapid growth and an aquatic lifestyle but again, the of... Scholar common duckweed ( Lemna minor, which were also investigated, Spirodela,! Used as food Florida, from the surface for animals Fresh duckweed maize... With strong acids and heat, which were also investigated and slow-moving water bodies, differs developmentally terrestrial., sometimes red, while the Lower surface is dark red [ 5..