Aggressive Behaviour, 33(4), 359−374. Studies have also found that people who live in violent communities learn to model the aggressive behaviour of their neighbours (Bartol, 2002). Furthermore, once inmates enter a correctional facility, they are likely to be subjected to intense psychological assessment to determine their treatment needs. The use of these scales has consistently produced a statistically significant relationship between certain personality characteristics and criminal behaviour. By contrast, in The Bell Curve, James Q. Wilson and Charles Murray (1994) conclude, after an extensive review of the research evidence, that there is a very strong correlation between IQ and crime and that people with low IQs are more likely to commit crimes, get caught, and be sent to prison. Johnson, J. G., P. Cohen, E. Smailes, S. Kasen, J.M. (2000). (1993). Under such laws, which remained in effect until the 1970s, over 5,000 people in Canada were approved for sterilization. Such symptoms can form the basis of neurotic disorders such as conversion and somatoform disorders (see below somatoform disorders), anxiety disorders, obsessional disorders, and depressive disorders. Kohlberg (1969) applied the concept of moral development to the study of criminal behaviour. Chapter 8 Theories on mental health and illness Patricia Barkway Key points • Mental health and mental illness are complex, distinct entities that are not necessarily mutually exclusive. The studies they reviewed include an even split between American and Canadian samples (with one additional sample from Sweden). Similarly, a number of sociological and criminological theories stress that violent criminals are impulsive and lack empathy for others (see the discussion of self-control theory below). Drug Forecasting in 1995. For Freud, aggression was thus a basic (idbased) Monahan, John. Slawson, John. These perspectives include the psychodynamic perspective, behavioural theory, cognitive theory and personality theory. Over the past few decades, considerable debate has emerged with respect to the relative effectiveness of rehabilitative efforts within corrections. Glueck, Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck. Genetics is at this time an important area of research for psychiatric disorders. These steps are associated with the relief of symptoms and improved mental functioning. This progress is due to the hundreds of past and ongoing research studies. (2001). New York: Macmillan. Studies also suggest that most people with severe mental illnesses do not engage in serious violence or criminality (Cirincione et al., 1991). 4. Most subsequent psychotherapies have stressed in their theories of causation aspects of earlier, maladaptive psychological development that had been missed or underemphasized by orthodox psychoanalysis, or they have incorporated insights taken from learning theory. The medical model of mental illness treats mental disorders in the same way as a broken arm, i.e. Substance abuse – including alcoholism – has now been formally recognized as a mental illness. However, if the aggressive impulse is not controlled, or is repressed to an unusual degree, some aggression can “leak out” of the unconscious and a person can engage in random acts of violence. Simplistic notions that low intelligence causes crime and delinquency often led to disastrous results. Over the past 100 years, psychological perspectives on violence have had a major impact on crime control and crime prevention policy. There a many different psychological models of criminal behavior ranging from early Freudian notions to later cognitive and social psychological models. The moral and intellectual development perspective is the branch of cognitive theory that is most associated with the study of crime and violence. Piquero, Alex. A recent survey of more than 6,000 respondents from 14 countries found that approximately ten per cent of the adult population suffers from some form of mental illness – ranging from depression to schizophrenia (Seigel and McCormick, 2006). (1920). Englander, Elizabeth. Since the appearance of this article, a large number of other international studies have emerged that the support the existence of the IQ-violence relationship (Piquero, 2000; Lynam et al., 1993; Denno, 1985). Poor school performance, in turn, directly contributes to criminal behaviour. Langton, Calvin and W. Marshall. Kohlberg, L., K. Kauffman, P. Schart and J. Hickey. Pliszka, S., J. Sherman, M. Barrow and S. Irick. Aichorn felt that stress only produced crime in those who had a particular mental state known as latent delinquency. (2002). Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37, 392−418. They have been described as egocentric, manipulative, cold-hearted, forceful, and incapable of feeling anxiety or remorse over their violent actions. Skip to content First of all, alcohol and drugs may have psychopharmacological effects that impair cognition and subsequently increase the likelihood of aggressive behaviour. Hug and R. Ammann. Lochman, J. (1985). Mental Deficiency and Crime. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 979−986. Contagion in rapists: Theoretical patterns by typological breakdown. Criminal behaviour in males with affective disorders. Criminal offenders may have a number of mood disorders that are ultimately manifested as depression, rage, narcissism, and social isolation. (1926). Adolescents who are prone to violence typically respond to frustrating events or situations with strong negative emotions. Boston: Budget Press. Kids who kill. Similarly, some experts have suggested that youth suffering from affective disorders are actually more likely to withdraw and harm themselves than to act violently towards others (Hillbrand, 1994). Very scientific and medically based. Criminology, 32, 163−195. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(5), 572−590. More recently, researchers have linked violent behaviours to traits such as hostility, egoism, self-centredness, spitefulness, jealousy, and indifference to or lack of empathy for others. It has been estimated that approximately 30 per cent of all prison inmates in the United States are psychopaths. Intelligence, they maintain, is largely determined by the quality of the parental bond, the level of intellectual stimulation received during early childhood, the nature of local peer-group relations, and the quality of neighbourhood schools. By the sixth stage, however, people obey the law because it is an assumed obligation and because they believe in the universal principles of justice, equity, and respect for others. Through this process people perceive situation, gain knowledge and experience through social interactions. Psychoanalytic theories focus on unresolved internal and relational conflicts. Criminology, 39, 765−799. Psychological research suggests that when people make decisions, they engage in a series of complex thought processes. Biological theories GENETICS. Osenblatt, A. (1999). Key Terms. Cognitive Theory: In the 1950's, a psychologist named Albert Ellis, and a psychiatrist named Aaron Beck, independently developed two very similar theories. This study is important because other studies have found a link between depression and both property crime and substance use, but not violence (see Englander, 2007). However, the authors of this study do note that they only focused on minor forms of aggression, not serious violence (Pliszka et al., 2000). A contemporary, promising approach is to view disorders as originating from an integration of biological and psychosocial factors. Most experts agree, for example, that the measurement of IQ is extremely problematic. Both of these theories resulted in effective forms of cognitive therapy. Similarly, a recent study by Piquero (2000) found that low scores on intelligence tests were among the strongest predictors of violent behaviour and could be used to distinguish between violent and non-violent offenders. The British Journal of Criminology, 42(2), 433−441. Lykken, David. Rates of mental illness may be even higher among youth. New York: Simon and Schuster. The issue of human violence is also a major topic within the academic discipline of psychology. It is sufficient to note that Freud thought that human behaviour, including violent behaviour, was the product of “unconscious” forces operating within a person’s mind. This is because children are relatively helpless and are dependent on their parents for love, care, security, and support and because their psychosexual, aggressive, and other impulses are not yet integrated into a stable personality framework. Behaviour theory maintains that all human behaviour – including violent behaviour – is learned through interaction with the social environment. Many drug addicts, for example, engage in violent crimes (including robbery) in order to gain enough money to support their habits. Our earlier research showed that clinicians’ concepts of mental disorders are actually quite theory-based rather than theory-neutral (Kim & Ahn, 2002). It is also interesting to observe that, at the societal level, rates of violent crime have actually decreased at the same time that mentally ill populations have been de-institutionalized. Studies have also found that up to 75 of juvenile murderers suffer from some form of mental illness – including psychopathy and schizophrenia (Rosner, 1979; Sorrells, 1977). The most significant criticism of the psychoanalytic perspective is that it is based on information derived from therapists’ subjective interpretations of interviews with a very small number of patients (see Englander, 2007). This process is a defense mechanism for protecting the individual from the anxiety or other psychic pain associated with those contents and is known as repression. These results highlighted the possibility that IQ tests may be culturally biased. The Gluecks (Glueck and Glueck, 1950), for example, identified a number of personality traits that they felt were 92−100). Findings, Analysis and Conclusions, The Root Causes of Youth Violence: A Review of Major Theoretical Perspectives, Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theory, Perceptions of Injustice, Crime and Violence, Preventing Youth Crime and Violence: A Review of the Literature. The association of personality type in childhood with violence in adolescence. In sum, research suggests that psychopaths have a significantly higher likelihood of violence than others do. Another major area of psychological inquiry involves the possible relationship between intelligence and crime.  |  As biosocial theorists do, psychologists focus on how individual characteristics may interact with the social environment to produce a violent event. (1996). If these causal relations are sufficiently strong, symptoms can generate a … Crime and Delinquency, 23, 312−320. Psychopathy Checklist: Youth version of the Youth Psychopathic Trait Inventory: A comparison study. American Sociological Review, 42, 471−586. It is interesting to note that Freud himself did not theorize much about crime or violence. ), Violence from Theory to Research, (pp. Last Modified: 5/6/2016 1:33:00 PM, Integrated services for northern children, Indigenous Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Ontario Black Youth Action Plan - Locations of programs, Ontario's Child Welfare Redesign Strategy, Financial assistance for family caring for children in need of protection, Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect: It’s Your Duty, Make a complaint regarding a children's aid society, Find programs that keep your teen out of trouble, Coordinated Service Planning: Policy and Program Guidelines, Integrated Delivery of Rehabilitation Services, A shared responsibility (policy framework), Information for Special Needs Professionals, Supporting children with blindness or low vision, Ontario's legislation for child and youth services, Review of the Child and Family Services Act, Ontario Indigenous Children and Youth Strategy, Premier’s Council on Equality of Opportunity, Volume 1. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Mental disorder is a statistically significant risk factor for the occurrence of violence.”. New York: Henry Holt. These theories have been posited as overall explanations of mental disorder, although today most psychoanalytic groups are said to adhere to the biopsychosocial model and to accept an eclectic mix of subtypes of psychoanalysis. In sum, psychodynamic theories depict the violent offender as an impulsive, easily frustrated person who is dominated by events or issues that occurred in early childhood. Nature theory also came under attack in the late 1920s and early 1930s when new studies determined that the IQ-crime relationship was not as strong as initially expected. (1977). Healy, W. and A. Bronner. Adolescent personality disorders associated with violence and criminal behavior during adolescence and early adulthood. Law and Human Behavior, 31(1), 53−75. Box 10-1 defines these six theories. Often because of childhood neglect or abuse, violence-prone individuals suffer from weak or damaged “egos” that render them unable to deal with stressful circumstances within conventional society. Ottawa: The Centre of Excellence in Children’s Mental Health. However, this two per cent was responsible for 50 per cent of the violent incidents that were documented during the study period (see Arsenault et al., 2000). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. These mental contents may at some time be pushed out of conscious awareness but remain actively held in the unconscious. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31(6), 446−448. (2005). Within the psychodynamic theory of crime are mood disorders. Clinical predictors of self-mutilation in hospitalized patients. Support for this hypothesis was garnered from studies that directly compared the IQ scores of adolescents with IQ scores derived from the general population. – that may have a strong impact on violent behaviour. From the social‐cultural perspective, abnormal behavior is learned … As such, psychological theorists have been charged with ignoring larger social forces – including poverty, social inequality, neighbourhood disorganization and racism (2000). This may cause some youth to react with violence at the slightest provocation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 17−21. But this threatened release of forbidden impulses or memories provokes anxiety and is seen as threatening, and a variety of defense mechanisms may then come into play to provide relief from the state of psychic conflict. Canadian Corrections. Rather, they learn to think and act violently as a (2006). Atkins, R. (2007). Biomedical Theory• Mental illness can be a result of something physical• Mental illness may be a symptom of an organic disease• Mental illness has an organic basis 38. Review of nervous system - neuroanatomy 39. In this section of the report, we briefly review some of the major psychological perspectives that have attempted to explain violent behaviour. I cannot review them all here. In fact, some critics maintain that “nothing works” with respect to the rehabilitation of chronic offenders (Griffiths and Cunningham, 2000). (1931). The psychoanalyst who is perhaps most closely associated with the study of criminality is August Aichorn. Violence is also related to competition between drug traffickers. Arsenault, L., Terrie Moffit, A. Caspi, P. Taylor and P. Silva. Caprara, G. V., Paciello, M., Gerbino, M. and Cugini, C. (2007). Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 7, 342−351. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are two of the most serious disorders. Durant, R., S. Barkin, S. Kreiter and D. Krowchuc.  |  Wilson, James Q. and Richard Hernstein. Consistent with this perspective, research suggests that some youth who engage in violent attacks on others actually believe that they are defending themselves, even when they have totally misinterpreted the level of threat (Lochman, 1987). Psychological Approaches. Social Learning Theory. Early empirical tests of these four principles were promising (Bartol, 2002). Finally, even if we accept previous research results at face value, intelligence-based explanations cannot begin to explain major patterns of criminal behaviour. Lipton, D., E. McDonel and R. McFall. The most common disorders among youth include depression, substance abuse and conduct disorder (Osenblatt, 2001). Adolescents accused of murder and manslaughter: A five year descriptive study. result of their day-to-day experiences (Bandura, 1977). Society, 34, 30−38. San Francisco: The University of California Press. (2000). On the other hand, even when presented with the opportunity, people with higher levels of moral reasoning will refrain from criminal behaviour because they think it is wrong. The Roots of Violence: Evidence from the Literature with Emphasis on Child and Youth Mental Disorder. Cognitive theorists focus on how people perceive their social environment and learn to solve problems. Cruise and E. Cauffman. (2001). Site map, © Queen's Printer for Ontario, 2010-15 (2007). lower in their moral development than non-violent youth – even after controlling for social background (Kohlberg et al., 1973). The Self-determination Theory of motivation (SDT), and more specifically, the Basic Psychological Needs Theory (BPNT) posit that autonomy, competence, and relatedness are the primary supports for well-being and optimal functioning (SDT, n.d.) Griffiths, Curt and Alison Cunningham. (1977). Drug traffickers may also draw the attention of other predatory criminals who specifically target them for robbery because they carry large volumes of cash (and drugs) and cannot report their victimization to the police (Wortley and Tanner, 2007). Studies of family life, for example, show that aggressive children often model the violent behaviours of their parents.  |  human impulse that is repressed in well-adjusted people who have experienced a normal childhood. Nature theory holds that intelligence is genetically determined and that low IQ directly causes violent and criminal behaviour. psychological services will ultimately reduce the level of violent crime in society (Seigel and McCormick, 2006). In their most extreme form, underdeveloped egos (or superegos) can lead to “psychosis” and the inability to feel sympathy for the victims of crime (see DiNapoli, 2002; Seigel and McCormick, 2006). Piaget, Jean. positive for illegal drugs at the time of their apprehension (Feutcht, 1996). New York: LexisNexis and Anderson Publishing. Are some people crime prone? Chichester, England: John Wiley and Sons. In a controversial article that appeared in the late 1970s, Travis Hirschi and Michael Hindelang reviewed existing data on the intelligence-crime relationship and concluded that IQ is a stronger predictor of crime and violence than many other demographic characteristics are – including social class (see Hirschi and Hindelang, 1997). In this theory, there is a spectrum between hypomentalism, which manifests as autism, and hypermentalism, which manifests as psychosis. An Overview of Mental Health and Children. Dunaway. Toronto: Nelson-Thomson. Adolescent violent behavior and ego development. The social‐cultural perspective. Our knowledge about successful treatment for anxiety disorders continues to advance at an accelerated rate. Theories of general personality and mental disorder - Volume 182 Issue S44 - C. Duggan, J. Milton, V. Egan, L. McCarthy, B. Palmer, A. Lee Skeem, K.R. This theory of schizophrenia advanced by Ronald Laing holds schizophrenia not as an illness but as a label for a certain kind of problematic experience and behaviour. (1992). Such psychotherapies emphasized the acquired faulty mental processes and maladaptive behavioral responses that act to sustain neurotic symptoms, thereby directing interest toward the patient’s extant circumstances and learned responses to those conditions as a causative factor in mental illness. Intelligence and delinquency: A revisionist review. (1935). Hillbrand, Marc, J. Krystal, K. Sharpe and H. Foster. For example, a Corrections Canada survey of over 6,000 inmates, many of them violent offenders, found that 48 per cent admitted to using illegal drugs at the time of their offence (Seigel and McCormick, 2006). Rosner, R. (1979). Others have not held up under close scientific scrutiny and may have been rejected altogether or only partially accepted by researchers today. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 9−13. (1994). Similarly, people do not become more intelligent as they age. Through reaction formation, projection, regression, sublimation, rationalization, and other defense mechanisms, some component of the unwelcome mental contents can emerge into consciousness in a disguised or attenuated form, thus providing partial relief to the individual. Wayward Youth. In general, these pioneering studies reported that the IQ scores of delinquents were significantly lower than the IQ scores of normal controls (Goddard, 1920; Healy and Bronner, 1926). A number of early criminologists argued that certain personality types are more prone to criminal behaviour. Psychological Theories Regarding the Development of Personality Disorder. Veneziano, Carl and Louis Veneziano. Psychopathology is the study of psychological disorders, including their symptoms, etiology (i.e., their causes), and treatment. 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