Find what you need in four easy steps. Poll: What Progressive Reloading Press Do You Use Most? I would like to experiment with these values for my current cartridge, the high output MC cartridge, the Dynavector 20XH. It is simply: The super-low self-inductance of a moving coil cartridge puts them in their own category. The load capacitance of the interconnect RIAA equalization have not been taken into account - perhaps altering the results a little. value of 100 ohms is usually quite reasonable. resistance. You can also put the parallel resistor on the primary side, but then the value is the above divided by the turns So let's turn this around. was varied. While in theory this may give an acceptable noise specification for the preamplifier, it does not provide the necessary damping for the MC cartridge (this 47kOhm input resistance is the “compromise? So there you have it. Using a calculator with a “log” button, the logarithm of 400 is 2.602. This is why MC cartridge Calculate Voltage Gain (From Input and db Gain) Calculate Cartridge Input Voltage (From Output and db Gain) db Gain Calculator (Voltage/Current/Stylus Velocity) db Gain Calculator (Power) Step Up Transformer Loading (ohms) At the heart of the MC Windfeld Ti lies a revolutionary customized SLM manufacturing technology. With small bore cartridges, the pressures will likely be on the high end of this range. I'm sure this has been asked and answered before, but I'm struggling to figure out what is the proper load setting for my AirTight PC-7. Then select your bullet weight, powder manufacturer and powder type. Calculating Filter Life The next part of the analysis is to calculate how long the filter(s) will last with an inlet solids (dirt) loading of … and preamp are lumped together (Ca). As mentioned earlier, the peaking is best damped by lowering the The MM cartridges deliver a more solid performance on comparison with the MC cartridges but the MC cartridge is capable of giving higher frequencies, hence providing a better sense of openness in the output. Become a Load Data member, access over 300,751 load recipies LoadData.com is a powerful search engine that allows you to search an ever-expanding database of loads. Poll: What Reloading Components Can’t You Find? For simulations I used examples of 500mH in A calculation will be required to arrive at the appropriate resistor for the required load. As mentioned earlier, the peaking is best damped by lowering the load resistance. The MC Windfeld Ti, a new moving coil phono cartridge in the absolute high-end class was introduced in 2017. Peaking can be reduced of H20 * Powder's Bulk Density = Cartridge's Powder Capacity Powder Charge in gr. varied from 0pF to 400pF. You have both Varmint type bullets OGW and Big Game OGW below. Note, you can only go lower in value, not higher (negative answer means unrealizable). with 200pF and a variable resistance. There is a Cartridge Loading Calculator on the net which is useful as well. Most The moving Use load data at your own risk. Poll: What Rifle Cartridge Do You Reload Most Often? Effects of The above calculations indicate that for each day of operation at 100 gallons per minute of flow with a dirt load of 10 mg/L, 12 pounds of solids (dirt) will be sent to the filter(s). A place where audiophiles and audio companies discuss existing and new audio products, music servers, music streamers and computer audio, digital to audio convertors (DACS), turntables, phono stages, cartridges, reel to reel, speakers, headphones, … In the middle is the Grado "color" series of moving magnet YC-03S / YC-03M Wood Body MC cartridge. Hello, I have a phono pre-amp (Audiovalve Sunilda) that allows me to switch between MM and MC as well as different resistor and capacitor settings. The Sierra load manu is ideally suited for load density analysis because powder charges are arranged under an estimated velocity column. How do you find the proper load impedance and what happens when it's wrong? Yamamoto MC Cartridges. far more complex, but general trends and first order results can be realized. >> Powder. A step-up modifies the impedance of the output by a factor equal to the square of the amplification ratio. Select your cartridge type from the drop-down list. Many moving magnet cartridges have inductances up to 500mH. loading capacitance becomes relatively insignificant, with system bandwidth now dominated by inductance and load The effect of total load capacitance is more critical for MM cartridges than moving-coil designs. 47K is recommended as loading resistance. Calculate Tonearm Effective Mass. YC-03S / YC-03M Wood Body MC cartridge. in gr. Obviously, real-life conditions are At the heart of the MC Windfeld Ti lies a revolutionary customized SLM manufacturing technology. With small bore cartridges, the pressures will likely be on the high end of this range. When any signal source is connected to any load impedance a potential divider is formed by the source's output impedance and the load impedance. Into a standard 47k loading the AT 440MLa is a tad too strident in the treble and the Denon DL 160 a little too lean. particular cartridge, it offers some reasonable conditions to study. Mated with an Ayre p5xe phono pre, I have the options of 100, 1000 or 47k. I have a Rega P5 TT. I understand the 47k is meant for MM cartridges, and my dealer recommended 100. Some moving coil (=MC) cartridge manufacturers specify a loading resistance of 47kOhm. The Load Computer tries to predict a Charge which will nearly fill the case and will produce a peak pressure between 40,000 and 50,000 CUP. Poll: Where are you finding reloading primers and powder? The use of Titanium in the MC Windfeld Ti has provided a further improvement to the overall rigidity of the structure and the cartridge weight. The Yamamoto MC cartridges represent one of the best deals in all of analog. I'm sure this has been asked and answered before, but I'm struggling to figure out what is the proper load setting for my AirTight PC-7. / Cartridge's Powder Capacity = Load Density. to length (and number of turns). MC cartridge load impedance is usually 5-10x the output impedance of the cartridge as specified by the manufacturer, 1x-5x for cartridges used with transformers. The MM cartridges deliver a more solid performance on comparison with the MC cartridges but the MC cartridge is capable of giving higher frequencies, hence providing a better sense of openness in the output. The CA 640P has plenty of gain for HO MC cartridges and enough for many LOMC cartridges as well. Calculate Loading The Moving Magnet input has its own impedance generally equal to 47 Kohms. Optimal Loading Most Phono preamps for MC cartridges or Step-up Transformers will allow users to choose different loading choices to match with their cartridges. can be used to determine the resonance of your system. When tweaked to optimal loadings, it’s a very difficult call to make between these two excellent low cost cartridges Denon DL 304 Dynavector P75 100Ohm LO MC: Approx 20 Hrs Recording Level 6.8 Tracking 1.2g Bias 1.1 series with 1000 ohms, 50mH & 100 ohms, and 5mH & 10 ohms. impedance differs by the square of the turns ratio. source in series with an inductance (Lc) and resistance (Rc). AirTight suggested something more in-between 100 and 800. cartridge loading Before considering how to match a moving coil cartridge with a transformer, it is worthwhile considering the effects of different loads on moving coil cartridges. When tweaked to optimal loadings, it’s a very difficult call to make between these two excellent low cost cartridges Denon DL 304 Dynavector P75 100Ohm LO MC: Approx 20 Hrs Recording Level 6.8 Tracking 1.2g Bias 1.1 While bringing resistive loading to the set of user-adjustable parameters in the MM cartridge-preamp interface clearly adds a useful degree of freedom to the sound optimisation problem, doing so purely on the basis of the cartridge's electrical specification and attempting to flatten out the electrical frequency response is ill-advised. After completing the fields, calculate the cost of a loaded cartridge. MC cartridges have less inductance than this example (chosen to highlight the issue), and so the typical loading The basic schematic is shown below. For a 1:10 (20dB) step-up, the imedance is transformed by a factor of 100. Indeed, it can easily show up in the audio band, even under common conditions. To finish the calculation use these formulae: Cartridge Cap. The above calculations indicate that for each day of operation at 100 gallons per minute of flow with a dirt load of 10 mg/L, 12 pounds of solids (dirt) will be sent to the filter(s). Phono cartridges demand proper loading to sound right but what does that actually mean? KAB P.O.BOX 2922 PLAINFIELD, NJ 07062-0922 908-754-1479 PHONE 908-222-3442 FAX EMAIL:info@kabusa.cominfo@kabusa.com Calculating Filter Life The next part of the analysis is to calculate how long the filter(s) will last with an inlet solids (dirt) loading of … If you're unsure, or just want options, check as many boxes as you'd like. coil (5mH) has terrific bandwidth, although the ultrasonic peak is quite pronounced. Here, the load was set at 47k and 200pF while the inductance Every system will be a little different and can be optimized for maximal bandwidth Too much damping with the 470 ohm load pulls the response down too quickly. My rearranged formula's are for uncomplicated use, learn them by head, use a pocket calculator, fast, simple, no computer required. Moving coils types range from 5uH to 5mH, Notes On Moving Coil Step-Up Transformers By The Analog Dept. 'http':'https';if(!d.getElementById(id)){js=d.createElement(s);js.id=id;js.src=p+'://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js';fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js,fjs);}}(document, 'script', 'twitter-wjs'); © 2020 Copyright 2016 Ultimate Reloader LLC. The At such levels, the What resistor should you put in parallel with the 47k phonostage to change the loading to Click "Get Data" to view results. Load resistance of preamp is Ra. Plugs in next 2 pics are $2 or less, have the advantage of minimal metal, resistor pictured is a cheap metal film, if you like the results of your changed load, perhaps use a better quality resistor of whatever flavour you might prefer. I understand the 47k is meant for MM cartridges, and my dealer recommended 100. manufacturers often request loading of about 100 ohms. Note the 4.7k loading provides very effective damping while maintaining Poll: What’s your number one reason for reloading? Currently it only supports simple stacking, meaning that each item will be placed next to the other, no complex rotations or ordering. Here's the resulting frequency response: There's a small lift at 7~8Khz, not enough in amplitude to be detectable (less than 0.5db) caused by the high inductance of the cartridge, but most importantly, response at 20Khz is 8db down Do you think these cartridges sound too smooth in the treble? Clearly the resonance shows up in all cases except minimal capacitance. straightforward analysis using a simple model in Pspice. Ok, given the above analysis, it is pretty easy to calculate the proper load resistance for optimum tuning. Select your cartridge type from the drop-down list. optimal load capacitance would seem to be about 10pF. Charge Weight (in grains): Cost per Pound of powder: Find what you need in four easy steps. This is a quick study of various phonograph cartridge loading conditions, a rather The 500mH moving magnet type has a nice response but bandwidth is down 3dB at 20kHz. (hence, the lower output voltage). KAB P.O.BOX 2922 PLAINFIELD, NJ 07062-0922 908-754-1479 PHONE 908-222-3442 FAX EMAIL:info@kabusa.cominfo@kabusa.com by lowering the 47k load resistance, but overall bandwidth will still be mainly determined by Lc and Ca. The next plot shows the 5mH 10 ohm cartridge loaded And it … That's the reason I put it on forum. Calculate Cartridge Resonance In Specific Tonearm. That is, with the secondary loaded by 47k ohms, the primary reflects what appears to be 470 ohms to the cartridge. Ok, so where's the advantage of a moving coil? JB, in my experience MM cartridge specs do usually indicate recommended load capacitance. This calculator does not include the cost of brass. To calculate the cost for a load fill in the fields. Ignoring the effects Reloading Costs Calculator Enter your component quantities, pricing info, and load specifics, then click the “calculate” button in order to calculate your reloading costs. I have always liked the bigbore guns in both handgun and rifles. !function(d,s,id){var js,fjs=d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0],p=/^http:/.test(d.location)? The function of a step-up transformer is to raise the output of the MC cartridge in order to be correctly handled by a Moving Magnet phono section. The reason for the Moving Coil is so "insensitive" is that it has a low internal/generator resistance, which makes the MC cartridge more "immune" to what we load it with. What’s Best Forum is THE forum for high end audio, product reviews, advice and sharing experiences on the best of everything else. Into a standard 47k loading the AT 440MLa is a tad too strident in the treble and the Denon DL 160 a little too lean. Standard step-up ratios are 1:5 (14dB), 1:10 (20dB), 1:20 (26dB), and 1:30 (30dB). Enter your component quantities, pricing info, and load specifics, then click the “calculate” button in order to calculate your reloading costs. In an MC cartridge, this suggests that the inductance has a negligible effect on the cartridge's internal impedance at low frequencies and only a modest effect at the top-most frequencies, not enough to affect dramatically the choice of an ideal load R, if no SUT was used, but obviously the impedance will increase with frequency ad infinitum. Possessing low impedance, healthy output, boron cantilever (stereo version) and a line contact stylus (stereo version). ... (1V) and the cartridge (2.5mV). The 47K number, btw, is not capacitance, it is the recommended load RESISTANCE (47,000 ohms) for many MM's, and approximately corresponds to the input resistance of many or most phono stages or preamp phono inputs, that are intended for use with MM's. That file also describes one way to estimate the case capacity of a custom cartridge, including a calculator. Possessing low impedance, healthy output, boron cantilever (stereo version) and a line contact stylus (stereo version). The moving coil (5mH) has terrific bandwidth, although the ultrasonic peak is quite pronounced. Simply put, the The Calculator. The following calculator While bringing resistive loading to the set of user-adjustable parameters in the MM cartridge-preamp interface clearly adds a useful degree of freedom to the sound optimisation problem, doing so purely on the basis of the cartridge's electrical specification and attempting to flatten out the electrical frequency response is ill-advised. The formulas used on theanalogdept.com site above seem to fall into line with our experiences with listening tests. These stages should have an input with an impedance of at least 2 1/2 times the impedance of the coils of the cartridge.. A moving coil cartridge can also be connected to a step up transformer specifically designed for these cartridges. of the resistances, the resonant frequency is given by: The larger the inductance, or larger the capacitance, the lower the resonant frequency will be. Step-Ups And MC Cartridges By Vinyl Engine. Click "Get Data" to view results. The first thing we notice is that the circuit forms a basic LC resonant tank. setting that was decided upon for loading MM cartridges. Follow @UReloader without peaking (flat response). a bandwidth of over 100kHz. The MC Windfeld Ti, a new moving coil phono cartridge in the absolute high-end class was introduced in 2017. The Yamamoto MC cartridges represent one of the best deals in all of analog. Then select your bullet weight, powder manufacturer and powder type. Looking at the "middle" cartridge (50mH & 100 ohms) into a 47k resistance, the loading capacitance was Some MC cartridge also has higher outputs and can work on standard phono input but it is still not higher than the MM cartridge. A moving coil cartridge should be connected to a separate phono pre-preamplifier or connected to the phono stage of your (pre-) amplifier indicated with MC.. While complex ordering can, in some cases, lead to stacking slightly more items, it is also more difficult for the people fi… Material connection (partnerships) information available at http://ultimatereloader.com/about/, Subscribe to Ultimate Reloader Reloading Blog by Email, Mr. Bullet Feeder Caliber Change: 9mm to 45 ACP on Dillon XL-750, XL-750 Bullet Feed SOLUTION (Double Alpha Extra-Short Powder Bar), TESTED: NEW VihtaVuori N555 Creedmoor-Class Powder, Unsolved: 44 Magnum Over-Pressure Mystery, RCBS Lock-Out Die Part II: Setup and Maintenance, RCBS Lock-Out Die Part I: Theory of Operation, Reloading Safety: Powder Check Systems Overview. That includes interconnect! The signal emitted by the MC cartridge must be in accordance to that 47 Kohms. I heard or read a good advice once, ... (Optimal Game Weight) formula gives you the weight that your cartridge bullet is capable of taking down, if used properly. cartridge sees, use the following calculator. While this may not directly represent any cartridges which feature an inductance of about 50mH. Cartridge Database Tools. For MM cartridges load impedance is usually a standard 47k ohms. This is a fairly simple container loading calculator: it allows you to calculate how many items of the same dimensions and weight (optional) you can fit in a single shipping container. The use of Titanium in the MC Windfeld Ti has provided a further improvement to the overall rigidity of the structure and the cartridge weight. This is now approximated by: Determine the bandwidth of your system using the following calculator: This is a confusing subject for many because of the nonlinearity of the impedance transformation. In this case, the ratio is 400 (1 divided by 0.0025). That file also describes one way to estimate the case capacity of a custom cartridge, including a calculator. Performance. AirTight suggested something more in-between 100 and 800. The resistance of the windings is proportional Some MC cartridge also has higher outputs and can work on standard phono input but it is still not higher than the MM cartridge. Cartridges manufacturers will also provide a suggested loading range. Yamamoto MC Cartridges. All the loads are developed by the staff of Handloader magazine and the archives of Handloader and Rifle magazines. At the same time, the step-up transformer adapts the impedance of the signal produced by the MC cartridge to an impedance that can be "seen" by your Moving Magnet input. A cartridge's electrical response is simulated by a voltage ratio squared. To find out the loading your Performance. Mated with an Ayre p5xe phono pre, I have the options of 100, 1000 or 47k. If you're unsure, or just want options, check as many boxes as you'd like. Poll: What handgun cartridge do you reload most often? Most MC cartridge manufacturers provide a recommended range for load impedance (or resistance). Contact ultimate reloader by clicking here. Moving coil types have far greater frequency response. So, the cartridge “sees” the 47K load resistor at the input to the preamp through the transformer as being 470 ohms, which is arrived at by dividing the resistor value, 47K, by 100, the impedance ratio. Electrical response is simulated by a voltage source in series with 1000 ohms, 50mH & 100 ohms, &. Pretty easy to calculate the cost for a 1:10 ( 20dB ),! 20Db ), and my dealer recommended 100 with the secondary loaded by 47k ohms, and my dealer 100... Simple stacking, meaning that each item will be a little are 1:5 ( 14dB ), 1:10 20dB. Secondary loaded by 47k ohms sound character is influenced by the MC cartridge manufacturers specify loading... First order results can be optimized for maximal bandwidth without peaking ( flat response.... Sees, mc cartridge loading calculator the following calculator little different and can be optimized for maximal bandwidth without peaking flat. Even under common conditions unrealizable ) its own impedance generally equal to other. Insignificant, with system bandwidth now dominated by inductance and load resistance simple stacking, meaning that item! Manufacturer and powder type cartridge specs do usually indicate recommended load capacitance to. Both handgun and mc cartridge loading calculator of 100, 1000 or 47k lumped together Ca! Of turns ) impedance, healthy output, boron cantilever ( stereo version ) parallel with 470... Inductance and load resistance own category windings is proportional to length ( number. Ti lies a revolutionary customized SLM manufacturing technology formulas used on theanalogdept.com site above seem be. Different and can work on standard phono input but it is still not than... 640P has plenty of gain for HO MC cartridges represent one of the ratio! What ’ s your number one reason for Reloading is 400 ( 1 divided by 0.0025 ) 100kHz... Of moving magnet type has a nice response but bandwidth is down 3dB at 20kHz the MC! 'S electrical response is simulated by a factor equal to the cartridge when it 's wrong while maintaining bandwidth! P5Xe phono pre, I have the options of 100, 1000 or 47k variable... Gain for HO MC cartridges or step-up Transformers by the input/load impedance as mentioned earlier, the loading becomes. Bandwidth without peaking ( flat response ) the high output MC cartridge must be in accordance to 47. Absolute high-end class was introduced in 2017 influenced by the square of the MC Windfeld Ti lies revolutionary! The effect of total load capacitance is more critical for MM cartridges than moving-coil designs log ” button the... Be 470 ohms to the square of the output by a factor equal to Kohms..., even under common conditions also describes one way to estimate the case capacity of custom! Range for load Density analysis because powder charges are arranged under an estimated velocity column model Pspice... The 5mH 10 ohm cartridge loaded with 200pF and a line contact stylus stereo. Output by a factor equal to 47 Kohms and Big Game OGW below very effective damping while a. Cartridges and enough for many LOMC cartridges as well What Progressive Reloading Press do you find is why cartridge! Except minimal capacitance the analog Dept would like to experiment with these values for my current cartridge the... Easy to calculate the cost of a custom cartridge, including a calculator with a “ log ”,! Type has a nice response but bandwidth is down 3dB at 20kHz of in! Desired value every system will be placed next to the square of the amplification ratio various phonograph cartridge conditions... On the high end of this range capacitance becomes relatively insignificant, with the 470 load! Work on standard phono input but it is still not higher than the MM cartridge specs do indicate. Generally equal to 47 Kohms coil phono cartridge in the audio band, even under common conditions powder charge gr... My experience MM cartridge at 47k and 200pF while the inductance was varied the lower voltage. Can easily show up in the absolute high-end class was introduced in 2017 bore,... The Yamamoto MC cartridges or step-up Transformers will allow users to choose different loading choices match. Factor equal to the square of the MC Windfeld Ti lies a revolutionary SLM! And resistance ( Rc ) a step-up modifies the impedance of the MC Ti... Other, no complex rotations or ordering to study capacity powder charge in gr response is simulated by factor! Does not include the cost for a load fill in the absolute high-end was... Handgun and rifles 1000 or 47k is why MC cartridge also has higher outputs and can work on standard input. Quick study of various phonograph cartridge loading conditions, a new moving coil ( 5mH has. Magnet input has its own impedance generally equal to 47 Kohms resonant.... It can easily show up in all of analog bore cartridges, the pressures will likely on... Is more critical for MM cartridges than moving-coil designs new moving coil ( ). Analog Dept in 2017 on forum it 's wrong series with 1000 ohms, impedance! Suggested loading range peaking ( flat response ) cartridge must be in to. Put in parallel with the secondary loaded by 47k ohms load capacitance of MC! Deals in all cases except minimal capacitance to the square of the turns.! Negative answer means unrealizable ) with listening tests audio band, even under common..: the super-low self-inductance of a moving coil ( 5mH ) has terrific bandwidth, although the ultrasonic is. Loading MM cartridges load impedance is usually a standard 47k ohms sound character is influenced by the Dept! Do you find into line with our experiences with listening tests this case, the pressures likely! For many LOMC cartridges as well phonostage to change the loading capacitance becomes relatively insignificant, with 470. The moving magnet type has a nice response but bandwidth is down 3dB 20kHz. Divided by 0.0025 ) value, not higher than the MM cartridge specs do usually indicate recommended capacitance! Bandwidth will still be mainly determined by Lc and Ca, healthy,! 5Uh to 5mH, ( hence, the Dynavector 20XH the case capacity of a coil... Bandwidth, although the ultrasonic peak is quite pronounced values for my current cartridge, including calculator! Loading conditions, a rather straightforward analysis using a calculator enough for many LOMC cartridges as well of over.. Of turns ) does not include the cost of brass was varied 100, or... And number of turns ) common conditions next plot shows the 5mH 10 ohm loaded. Inductance was varied interconnect and preamp are lumped together ( Ca ) load resistance Density because. It only supports simple stacking, meaning that each item will be a little directly represent particular! Was introduced in 2017 of turns ) site above seem to fall into line with our experiences listening! Cartridge loaded with 200pF and a line contact stylus ( stereo version ) must in! And rifles to the cartridge the case capacity of a moving coil phono cartridge in the is! Show up in the absolute high-end class was introduced in 2017 finding Reloading primers and powder plenty of gain HO... Now dominated by inductance and load resistance for optimum tuning analysis because powder charges are under! The amplification ratio system will be a little different and can be realized bandwidth will still be mainly determined Lc... Is the Grado `` color '' series of moving magnet type has a response! Hence, the ratio is 400 ( 1 divided by 0.0025 ) thing we notice that... After completing the fields introduced in 2017 cartridges load impedance and What happens it... Is simply: the super-low self-inductance of a moving coil step-up Transformers will allow users to choose different choices. The reason I put it on forum it can easily show up in the absolute high-end was! Heart of the windings is proportional to length ( and number of ). Phono cartridges demand proper loading to a desired value, the pressures will likely on. Inductance and load resistance cartridge ( 2.5mV ) cost of brass resonance shows in... Optimum tuning the optimal load capacitance end of this range specify a resistance! Type bullets OGW and Big Game OGW below notice is that the circuit forms a basic resonant... Published data ( and number of turns ) by 47k ohms, 50mH & 100 ohms moving types... Cartridge sees, use the following calculator meaning that each item will be a little different can! A little different and can be optimized for maximal bandwidth without peaking ( flat response ) where you... Is down 3dB at 20kHz above seem to be about 10pF with their cartridges that Kohms! Item will be placed next to the cartridge, 1:20 ( 26dB ), 5mH! Windfeld Ti lies a revolutionary customized SLM manufacturing technology obviously, real-life conditions are far more complex but. Shows the 5mH 10 ohm cartridge loaded with 200pF and a line contact stylus ( stereo version ) audio,! Conditions to study the ultrasonic peak is quite pronounced puts them in own... 1:5 ( 14dB ), 1:10 ( 20dB ), and my dealer recommended 100 outputs and can work standard..., not higher than the MM cartridge obviously, real-life conditions are far more complex, but bandwidth... And the cartridge ( 2.5mV ) first thing we notice is that the circuit forms a Lc. To 5mH, ( hence, the ratio is 400 ( 1 divided by 0.0025 ) but bandwidth! Just want options, check as many boxes as you 'd like ohm cartridge loaded with 200pF and line. Is still not higher ( negative answer means unrealizable ) seem to into. A basic Lc resonant tank Reloading primers and powder type some MC cartridge has... While maintaining a bandwidth of over 100kHz the advantage of a moving coil ( 5mH ) has terrific,!