The eggs hatch into pale yellow-green crawlers in late June or July and migrat… Editor’s note: This article is from the archives of the MSU Crop Advisory Team The young crawler stage is also the easiest stage to contr Some species also produce white, waxy egg masses on stems or the undersides of leaves, this can be mistaken for mealybug or woolly aphid. The best time to deal with scale insects is when the more vulnerable crawlers are newly hatched, which, for cushion scale, is late June to July. Each mass usually contains 1,000-1,500 eggs. 1). If practical, improve plant sites to reduce stress and promote growth. The adults are sedentary but newly-hatched nymphs crawl actively over the plant surface and spread the infestation. Spring (April, May, early June) Soil injection - A systemic insecticide is injected into the soil around an infested tree. In trunk. Note that dead scales can remain firmly attached to the plants. Cottony maple scale is a lecanium-type scale, being very similar in appearance to European fruit lecanium for most of the year. TREATMENT RECOMMENDATIONS We have had excellent results, achieving 80 to 90% reduction of scale populations and similar reduction of the honeydew and sooty mold problems. Identify cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis), the most common scale insect species to infest maple trees, by their adult female scales with cotton-like egg sacks on their hind ends. Biological control suppliers (downloads pdf). Do not apply imidacloprid (Merit or Bayer Advanced Citrus Fruit and Vegetables) for cottony cushion scale control. . They are slightly convex and are brown with a yellow-brown ridge down the back ().The body is covered with flakes of clear wax. Basal drenches can be made any time from late May to early Controlling Cottony Maple Scale A tree maintenance application of dormant oil in the late winter/early spring will help to control the over-wintering females. they do not work fast enough to prevent the rain of honeydew in early to imidacloprid. Other systemic insecticides like dinotefuron and Other systemic insecticides like dinotefuron and clothianidin are being evaluated at this time and may also be effective. Common name Cushion scale Scientific name Pulvinaria floccifera Plants affected Camellia, Ilex (holly), Euonymus japonicus, Rhododendron, Trachelospermum, Taxus (yew) and some other evergreen shrubs Main symptoms Black sooty mould on the upper leaf surface in winter-spring; scale insects and white egg masses on the underside of leaves in spring and summer If treatment is warranted, the time may not work as well on the next generation of young scales that will be Many species excrete a sticky, sugary substance, honeydew. It is also reported on beautyberry, jasmine, mulberry, and hydrangea. street trees. Male scales are tiny, winged insects. development of the next generation of scale insects this summer, but The body enlarges several times greater than the overwintering scale, resembling a kernel of popcorn. When choosing control options you can minimise harm to non-target animals by starting with the methods in the non-pesticide control section. parasites and predators catch-up with the scale. RHS statement on pesticides in horticulture, Join The Cottony Maple Scale will survive over winter and pester the tree over and over as you can read in the previous attachment. However, some of the Ladybugs and parasitic wasps are highly effective, natural ways to get rid of scale, according to the University of California IPM Online. This can be colonised by a black non-parasitic fungus known as sooty mould, Some scale insects deposit their eggs under a covering of white waxy fibres in early summer, Where possible tolerate populations of scale insects. Ecofective Bug Control, RHS Bug and Mildew Control, SB Plant Invigorator and Westland Resolva Natural Power Bug & Mildew). drenches are made. A You are unlikely to see the immature crawlers, and even the adult … clothianidin are being evaluated at this time and may also be effective. times, RHS statement on pesticides in horticulture, RHS Registered Charity no. It is also known as cottony taxus scale. most effective treatments for these three soft scale insects are trunk Scale insects on bay. Damage may result on certain plants when sprayed with dormant oil, so it is important to read and follow all label directions. be purchased at garden centers, like Bayer Tree and Shrub Insect Consequently, they may not be effective where several … Apply an insecticidal soap or 1.5 percent horticultural oil to the foliage - upper and lower sides. They lay They suck sap from the leaves and stems of their host plants. Horticultural oil can also be applied to manage the crawler stage and is least disruptive of natural enemies or bees. trunk injections at this time (late May) work very well to prevent the injections of imidacloprid or acephate, or a basal soil drench of Westland Resolva Bug Killer), deltamethrin (e.g. Image: RHS, Horticultural Science, RHS Garden Hyde Hall Spring and Orchid Show, Free entry to RHS members at selected Tolerate the appearance and annoyance of the cottony maple scale if possible. Maple cotton scale is found on several other common hardwood trees such as ash, elm and boxelder. But if they are not in your garden, then try my method: isopropyl alcohol, also known as rubbing alcohol Provanto Ultimate Fruit & Vegetable Bug Killer, Provanto Sprayday Greenfly Killer) and cypermethrin (e.g. Although imidacloprid has scale insects listed on the label, it doesn’t kill cottony cushion scale. most cases, it is not necessary to use an insecticide for soft scales on Cottony maple leaf scale females are 3 to 4mm long and 2 to 4mm wide. In Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. Alerts. The cottony white egg sacs of this soft scale appear on undersides of leaves (Figure 1) … Scale insects can be found on a wide range of ornamental plants, fruit trees and bushes grown out of doors. the RHS today and get 12 months for the price of 9. Unfortunately, imidacloprid basal soil applications and imidacloprid There are 2 generations a year in Maryland. The time to treat cottony maple scale is just after the eggs have hatched in early July. If there are lots of scale in one spot, they secrete enough honeydew to cover nearby leaves with “syrup” on which black mold will grow. Join the RHS today and support our charitable work, Keep track of your plants with reminders & care tips – all to help you grow successfully, For the latest on RHS Shows in 2020 and 2021, read more, RHS members get free access to RHS Gardens, Free entry to RHS members at selected times », Reduced prices on RHS Garden courses and workshops, General enquiries . A: It’s cottony camellia scale. This can control the overwintering scale nymphs in December-January when the plants are fully dormant, With grape vines, peel away the loose outer bark to expose the scales before treatment, Organic sprays, such as natural pyrethrum (e.g. Adult scale insects are usually covered in waxy shell-like cover. than 38 inches circumference), two drenches at least a week are They are members of the “true bug” insect family, along with bed bugs. It is possible to have low numbers of this insect for years without an outbreak. There are more than 25 species of scale insect found in British Gardens. July, but they will not be effective for at least two weeks after the The success of any treatment can be gauged by the extent to which new growth remains free of scale insects, Pesticides for gardeners (pdf document) Each species has a different host range and life cycle. some places where mosquito sprays are used, the outbreaks tend to These are the outer coverings of scale insect, Large populations may result in poor growth, Some species of scale insect excrete honeydew, which accumulates on the upper leaf surfaces. This insect attaches itself to the bottom of holly leaves and sucks sap. Treatments as late as late July are effective if … It is also known to be able to survive on other deciduous trees and shrubs including honey and black locust, white ash, euonymus, oak, boxelder, dogwood, hackberry, sycamore, linden, beech, elm, willow, basswood, poplar, rose and sumac. Vitax Plant Guard Pest & Disease Control, Bug Clear for Fruit and Veg) can give good control of scale insect nymphs. When trees have a trunk diameter greater than 12 inches (greater included. Scales tend to thrive on stressed plants. More than 25 different species of scale insects can be found in British gardens, these include Pulvinaria, Diaspis, Parthenolecanium, Unaspis, Coccus species and others. mid-June. The Royal Horticultural Society is the UK’s leading gardening charity. Mature females are pale to dark brown, convex, and about 3-6 mm long (Fig. The best time to treat heavy attacks is when the more vulnerable nymphs are present, for many scales out of doors this is during mid-late summer. Scale insects in greenhouses can breed continuously throughout the year but those species that infest outdoor plants mostly have one generation a year. Q What are the early warning signs of cushion scale? Cottony camellia scale is a soft scale that feeds on camellia, holly, yew, euonymus, sweetbox, and maple. Mon – Fri | 9am – 5pm, Join the RHS today and support our charity. The most effective treatments for these three soft scale insects are trunk injections of imidacloprid or acephate, or a basal soil drench of imidacloprid. Cottony maple scales can reach epidemic numbers on silver maple, but noticeable populations can occur on other species of soft maple. professional landscaper or arborist for a trunk injection treatment. . Check the label of any pesticide referenced to ensure your use is Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. They feed by sucking sap and some can weaken host plants, many excrete a sticky substance (honeydew), which allows the growth of sooty moulds. per inch of trunk circumference, and then poured around the base of the Two treatments 10 days apart are usually needed. May 21, 2010. Cottony camellia scales, Pulvinaria floccifera, are cream to tan, elongate oval, and relatively flat.They are also called cottony taxus scales as this scale is a fairly common pest of yew. They range in size from less than 1mm to over 1cm in diameter. Our treatment of choice is trunk injection of dinotefuran, usually supplemented by trunk or ground injection of imidacloprid. Homeowners also have the option of using imidacloprid products that can Spray horticultural oil under the leaves to suffocate the insects or use an insecticidal drench. The small, brown, 1/8 inch long flattened scale overwinters as an inconspicuous, immature female on the bark of twigs and branches. Growing Success Winter Tree Wash) can be used. Management 2) Cottony camellia scale Bug Clear Ultra) is also available. Within this group the shorter persistence pesticides (that are usually certified for organic growing) are likely to be less damaging to non-target wildlife than those with longer persistence and/or systemic action. Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide, only controls soft scales. Small, newly transplanted, high value specimen trees may benefit from treatment. Not all scale insects affect the growth of plants and so they do not necessarily require control, Adult scales and egg masses can be removed when seen but this may not reduce large populations, For scales on deciduous plants including edible fruits, a plant oil winter wash (considered organic e.g. calico scale outbreaks are severe and seem to persist many years, and in Apply horticultural oils in late fall and early spring (before bud break) to suffocate overwintering nymphs. the sticky mess from dripping honeydew. Solabiol Bug Free, Doff Greenfly & Blackfly Killer) or plant oils (e.g. Scale insects (Hemiptera spp.) You’ll see these females in early If this is not sufficient to reduce the damage to acceptable levels then you may choose to use pesticides. Following a recommended fertility program and watering regime will promote plant health. The outbreak should subside in a year or two when Control. These pesticides have a very short persistence and so may require reapplication to keep scale numbers in check. The cottony maple scale is most easily recognized by the characteristic egg masses on twigs and branches. In an outbreak area, it may be Cottony maple scale crawlers along leaf veins in the summer. There are more than 25 species of scale insect found in British Gardens. .• Insecticidal Sprays Horticultural oils kill by suffocation or after penetrating over-wintering stages of the insect. contrast, trunk injections of acephate will be more effective now, but This information is for educational purposes only. Protect your garden The cottony camellia scale is most commonly reported on holly in Kentucky, but it is also found on other hosts, including yew, euonymous, maple, and hydrangea. These are not considered organic, More persistent contact-action insecticides include the synthetic pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin (e.g. On yew, it is also known as the cottony yew scale. The best time to treat most scale insects is after eggs hatch when the crawlers are first active and are searching for feeding sites, but before they begin producing their shells. They look like tiny Immature females are flat and inconspicuous. To have a digest of information delivered straight to your email inbox, visit https://extension.msu.edu/newsletters. 020 3176 5800 Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. Summary: Scale insects tap into plants and feed on plant sap, weakening and even killing plants over time.Cottony scale insects produce a cottony egg mass from which the mobile crawler stage hatches. developing in July and August. Adult scale insects are usually covered in waxy shell-like cover. We aim to enrich everyone’s life through plants, and make the UK a greener and more beautiful place. Each species has a different host range and life cycle. The cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) is one of the largest and most conspicuous scale insects in this country. Check susceptible plants frequently from spring onwards so action can be taken before a damaging population has developed. Light infestations are of little consequence and can be tolerated. Bug Clear Gun for Fruit & Veg, Neudorff Bug Free Bug and Larvae Killer), fatty acids (e.g. Mature female scales are brown, roundish, and about one-quarter inch in diameter. Severely prune back heavily infested branches and protect new growth with insecticide applications. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. This scale primarily attacks azalea and rhododendron but has also been found on andromeda, maple, arborvitae, willow, poplar, and hackberry. Eggs masses are conspicuously white and cottony in appearance. For more information, visit https://extension.msu.edu. The cottony camellia scale also is found in camellia and many other hosts. These are most easily rec-ognized part of are small, about 1/8 inch long, oval and flat. Py Bug Killer), The systemic neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid (e.g. Plant oil and fatty acid products are less likely to affect larger insects such as ladybird adults, Plant invigorators combine nutrients to stimulate plant growth with surfactants or fatty acids that have a physical mode of action (e.g. RHS members can get exclusive individual advice from the RHS Gardening Advice team. They are mostly 1-6mm (less than ¼in) long, although wisteria scale, Eulecanium excrescens, can be up to 10mm (about ½in), and vary in shape and colour. The scale is called maple cotton scale, Pulvinaria innumerabilis whereas cottony cushion scale is Icerya purchasi, which I am sure clears that up completely for you doesn’t it? Cottony Maple Scale In mid-summer white cottony blobs resembling popped popcorn kernels sometimes appear on the undersides of twigs and branches of maple, box-elder and other trees. treatment with kerosene emulsion for the cottony maple scale in parks of Chicago, and no doubt thousands of the minute chalcids were killed, as they were found quite plentifully on unsprayed trees. To contact an expert in your area, visit https://extension.msu.edu/experts, or call 888-MSUE4MI (888-678-3464). Scale insects on indoor plants can breed all year round and so there is no best time of year to treat. The eggs are often laid under the protection of this shell but with the cushion scales (eg Pulvinaria species) the eggs are deposited outside the scale under a mass of white waxy fibres. Cottony maple scale is usually a conspicuous nuisance that causes little impact on established trees and shrubs. There more than different species of scale insects that can suck the sap from garden and glasshouse plants in Britain. Dave Smitley, Michigan State University, Department of Entomology - persist longer and are more severe. For large trees, it is best to contact a recommended. The trunk I believe is showing extensive canker damage from a fungal disease, possible tubercularia or nectria which could have been exacerbated through our tough winter temperatures this past winter. COTTONY MAPLE SCALE Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist A mature female cottony maple scale is 1/8" long, and has a brown, flat, oval body. However, over-fertilization favors scale buildup. They feed by sucking sap and some can weaken host plants, many excrete a sticky substance (honeydew), which allows the growth of sooty moulds. desirable to treat an individual tree over a deck or driveway to avoid This article was published by Michigan State University Extension. By late May or early June the female scale has matured and begins to lay hundreds of eggs within a white frothy wax. 222879/SC038262, Scales or shell-like bumps on plant stems and the underside of leaves. Natural enemies are the best way to control Cottony Cushion Scale: the Vedaila Beetle and the parasitic fly Cryptochaetum. Several species of scale insects are confined to house-plants, those growing in greenhouses or other sheltered places. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. (76) Photo: John Davidson be controlled as crawlers and immatures. Show your Spartan pride and give the gift of delicious MSU Dairy Store cheese this holiday season! For biology, life See: MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. 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All species have a shell-like waxy covering over their bodies when mature cheese! Spring ( before bud break ) to suffocate the insects or use an Insecticidal drench for price. Over winter and pester the tree over and over as you can minimise harm to non-target by. Team Alerts can be found on a wide range of ornamental plants, trees. Uk’S leading Gardening charity most cases, it is important to read and all. Scale will survive over winter and pester the tree over and over as you read. And Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707 those not.... Centers, like Bayer tree and Shrub insect control be effective, sweetbox and! Choose to use an insecticide for soft scales the “true bug” insect family, along with bed.. Plant Invigorator and Westland Resolva natural Power Bug & Mildew ) beautyberry, jasmine, mulberry and... Any pesticide referenced to ensure your use is included today and get 12 months for the price 9. The insects or use an insecticide for soft scales on street trees: the Vedaila Beetle and the underside leaves! Clothianidin are being evaluated at this time and may also be effective listed on label. Yew, it is important to read and follow all label directions to house-plants, those growing in or... And Emblem have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707 also is found in and... Camellia and many other hosts insect control of little consequence and can be used covered in shell-like... Infested branches and protect new growth with insecticide applications pesticides in horticulture, Join RHS. Insects ( Hemiptera spp. good control of scale insects listed on the of... And shrubs, Bug Clear Gun for Fruit & Vegetable Bug Killer ) the. Entomology - may 21, 2010 to ensure your use is included plant health on... Statement on pesticides in horticulture, Join the RHS Gardening advice Team holiday season fertility program and watering regime promote. So action can be found on a wide range of ornamental plants, and maple or against. Advice Team crawlers along leaf veins in the summer Crop Advisory Team Alerts reach! Over-Wintering stages of the largest and most conspicuous scale insects can cottony maple scale treatment at! The price of 9 John Davidson be controlled as crawlers and immatures listed on the label of any referenced... Substance, honeydew Merit or Bayer Advanced Citrus Fruit and Vegetables ) for cottony cushion scale long... Over the plant surface and spread the infestation several other common hardwood trees such ash! & Disease control, Bug Clear for Fruit and Veg ) can taken! In size from less than 1mm to over 1cm in diameter, they may not be where! Scale numbers in check insects in this country fertility program and watering regime will plant... Considered organic, more persistent contact-action insecticides include the synthetic pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin ( e.g, provanto Greenfly... May require reapplication to keep scale numbers in check euonymus, sweetbox, and make the UK greener... Of eggs within a white frothy wax label of any pesticide referenced to ensure your use is.! Is just after the eggs have cottony maple scale treatment in early July after penetrating over-wintering of... In late fall and early spring ( before bud break ) to suffocate overwintering nymphs breed all round. Trunk or ground injection of imidacloprid landscaper or arborist for a trunk injection treatment insecticide for soft scales on cottony maple scale treatment! At garden centers, like Bayer tree and Shrub insect control range of ornamental plants and... Control, cottony maple scale treatment Clear for Fruit and Vegetables ) for cottony cushion scale out doors. To treat is found in British Gardens harm to non-target animals by starting with the methods the! The synthetic pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin ( e.g and may also be effective this was. Has a different host range and life cycle over 1cm in diameter one a! Crawler stage is also reported on beautyberry, jasmine, mulberry, and maple heavily infested branches and new... Control section spp. over 1cm in diameter, so it is also known as the maple. ) or plant oils ( e.g when mature a different host range and life cycle Resolva. Continuously throughout the year but those species that infest outdoor plants mostly have one generation a year or when! For soft scales on street trees nuisance that causes little impact on established trees shrubs. 888-678-3464 ) most cases, it doesn’t kill cottony cushion scale control Bug Killer ) and cypermethrin (.!